A short clip of Peter Singer and Bryan Magee discussing Hegel and Marx. The original video quality wasn't the best, so I just added my own visuals. In any case, the whole discussion can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9SUYhdivn0& As a young or left Hegelian, Marx adopted much of Hegel's system. However, one important difference is that Marx substituted a kind of materialism for Hegel's idealism. As such, Marx privileged the material conditions over mind and ideas. This meant that rather than ideas underlying society and driving historical change, it was the material and economic conditions which determine ideas, culture, and historical change. (My Summary)
Views: 10817 Philosophy Overdose
"Paradoxically, the development of the human sciences is leading to the disappearance of Man rather than to Man's apotheosis." From an interview with Pierre Dumayet called "Les mots et les choses": https://www.ina.fr/video/I05059752
Views: 94908 Philosophy Overdose
A few clips of Martin Heidegger from a 1969 interview with Richard Wisser discussing being, technology, and God knows what else. The translation should be pretty good, but I did it myself, so who knows. The following are a few notes about the translation. I translated 'Offenbarkeit des Seins' as 'Openness of Being', but it is sometimes also translated as 'Revealedness of Being' or 'Revealability of Being'. I translated 'Das Gestell' as 'Enframing', but it is also sometimes translated as 'The Framework' or 'The Frame' or something along those lines. I translated 'Bestand' as 'always-for-use', but it usually gets translated as 'Standing Reserve'. I decided not to translate it as 'Standing-Reserve' simply to make it a little bit easier for those who aren't familiar with Heidegger. And I obviously didn't even bother translating 'Ge-setz' because, well, how the hell would one even do that to begin with? Another clip of Heidegger from this interview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96xeh_6vYU0 Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/PhilosophyOverdoseYoutube
Views: 20363 Philosophy Overdose
A few clips from this classic 1971 debate between Noam Chomsky and Michel Foucault on justice and power. Among other things, Foucault suggests that there is no fixed, ahistorical notion of human nature, as posited by Chomsky’s concept of innate human faculties. Chomsky argues that concepts of justice are rooted in human nature and reason, whereas Foucault rejects any such universal basis for a concept of justice.
Views: 134479 Philosophy Overdose
A clip of Hannah Arendt discussing labor and consumption, and the "dethroning" of the importance of the political by the modern period, which she associates with the breakdown of tradition and the resulting rootlessness and loneliness of the masses in the modern world (something, by the way, which she thought made totalitarianism possible in the 20th century, both from the right and the left). This is from a 1964 interview with Günter Gaus. The interview can be found here on Youtube, although for whatever reason, this is one of the clips not included in the English version, which is the main reason I decided to translate it and put it up myself. Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/PhilosophyOverdoseYoutube
Views: 27524 Philosophy Overdose
A very short clip of Simone de Beauvoir discussing existentialism and the existentialist conception of human beings in an interview from 1959. More short clips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxCzrcYUBaK4cVBKRCIRxSoc Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/PhilosophyOverdoseYoutube
Views: 7782 Philosophy Overdose
A few clips of Professor Christopher Janaway discussing the thought of Arthur Schopenhauer. This comes from an episode of the Essay on Wagner's Philosophers. I thought it provided a good overview of the main themes of Schopenhauer's philosophy. Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01shyvw
Views: 6644 Philosophy Overdose
In this short clip from a 1978 interview, Hilary Putnam explains the functionalist theory of mind in very simple terms, a view which has antecedents in ancient philosophy, but which was first clearly formulated and developed by Putnam and others in the 1960s, and which caught on with the rise of computers. The view is an alternative to both dualism and reductive materialism. The basic idea is that what makes something a mental state of a particular type is not what it's made of, but its function, the role it plays. The mind is like the program or software of the physical brain. And just as the very same program can be run on different hardware, so the very same mental states can be implemented in very different physical systems, even non-biological ones. This is the idea of multiple realizability, one of the most important aspects of the functionalist view. This is from a 1978 interview with Bryan Magee on the philosophy of science. The high quality version where this clip was taken from can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7Z2y61rd6M You might also be interested in the following interview with Jerry Fodor on philosophy of mind: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hs82SsczIpE You might also want to check out John Searle's famous Chinese Room argument against functionalist and computational theories of mind. You can find a clip of Searle explaining it here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YigL76hiSeA Read more about functionalism: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
Views: 3546 Philosophy Overdose
A clip of Martin Heidegger from a 1969 interview with Richard Wisser discussing Karl Marx's famous quote: "The philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it." ("Die Philosophen haben die Welt nur verschieden interpretiert; es kommt aber darauf an, sie zu verändern.") More clips of Heidegger from this interview: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MtATDlUSIxI More Short Clips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxCzrcYUBaK4cVBKRCIRxSoc Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/PhilosophyOverdoseYoutube
Views: 8259 Philosophy Overdose
Ronald Dworkin gives a very brief, introductory overview of John Rawls' "A Theory of Justice" and Robert Nozick's "Anarchy, State, and Utopia" in an interview with Bryan Magee from 1978. Although both wrote very influential works of political philosophy, they came to quite different conclusions. Rawls famously put forward a novel argument for his position which made use of a thought experiment involving a hypothetical contract. Unlike other social contract theories though, Rawls added the further twist that the bargainers must be ignorant about certain facts about themselves which could bias them in their own favor (e.g. their race, gender, class, age, talents, etc.). In this way, ignorance is used as a device to guarantee impartiality in deciding how societies should be structured. After all, one cannot rig things up to benefit oneself if one doesn't know what one's interests are and what one's position in society will be. Rawls argued that people behind this so-called "veil of ignorance" would agree to two principles, the most interesting being the difference principle, which states that economic inequalities are justified only if they benefit the worst off in society. Such a view was rejected by Nozick however, who argued from a starting point of absolute rights of property which cannot be violated without one's consent. Despite such a strong principle, Nozick argued that there can still be a state, a so-called "night-watchman" or minimal state, which protects property and person. In this way, Nozick can be understood as privileging liberty over equality, whereas Rawls privileges that of equality and fairness. (My Summary) For a more detailed explanation of Rawls, check out: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XwVqDBB9PwM&
Views: 45439 Philosophy Overdose
This is from a Bryan Magee interview on the nature & importance of philosophy, which can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vib2rqJKS08&t Berlin's lecture on Romanticism: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0snaamkYDcg More short clips of Berlin on Philosophy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uiEmUE0oZ1M https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4IFMSGEYe7o
Views: 4732 Philosophy Overdose
A short clip of Ken Gemes discussing one difference between Nietzsche and the postmodernists. This is from a talk he gave on Nietzsche on the Death of God and Nihilism, which can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0y5-hB0WYs&t
Views: 4936 Philosophy Overdose
A short interview with Bertrand Russell on philosophy from 1960. It's already on Youtube, but I tried to fix up the audio and video a bit. I also added English subtitles/cc. More short philosophy clips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxCzrcYUBaK4cVBKRCIRxSoc Facebook Page: https://www.facebook.com/PhilosophyOverdoseYoutube
Views: 14218 Philosophy Overdose
An introductory discussion of Husserl, Phenomenology, Heidegger, and Existentialism with Hubert Dreyfus and Bryan Magee from 1987. Edmund Husserl was a 20th-century German philosopher, best known for founding phenomenology, a philosophical movement and methodology of examining the underlying structure of experience. Martin Heidegger was also a 20th-century German philosopher, best known for his contributions to phenomenology and existentialism. Existentialists take human existence and the human condition to be a fundamental issue. They tend to be radical individualists who privilege our lived experience and choice. They focus on themes such as: freedom, authenticity, the individual, meaning, anxiety/angst/dread, alienation, death, the absurd, contingency, and nihilism. They are often suspicious of any fixed, pre-determined human nature, objective/universal values, and abstract philosophical systems. Some of the most important existentialist thinkers include Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Dostoyevsky, Albert Camus, Karl Jaspers, and Simone de Beauvoir. (My Summary). You might also be interested in the following: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MNhiQSfpGSU
Views: 77668 Philosophy Overdose
Martin Heidegger is interviewed in 1963 or 1964 by a Thai Monk named Bhikku Maha Mani.
Views: 34037 Philosophy Overdose
Professor James Anderson gives a very broad overview of some of the themes of postmodern philosophy. This is from a course on the history of philosophy. In-depth discussion of Derrida's thought: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4vnES5m3oKE
Views: 20371 Philosophy Overdose
Bryan Magee and Anthony Quinton discuss the 17th-18th century philosophers Spinoza and Leibniz. Both were rationalists who developed elaborate philosophical systems out of only a few basic principles of reason, but ended up with quite different views. Spinoza was a monist and pantheist. He identified everything with one substance, what he called "God or Nature", and understood everything as a mere aspect or mode of this great unity of existence. Thus, there is ultimately only one true entity or being for Spinoza. He rejected any personal conception of God, as well as free will and purpose within nature, leading many to think of him as an atheist. Leibniz, on the other hand, embraced plurality in his system. He posited an infinite array of indivisible substances that he called "monads" which were immaterial, incorporeal, mind-like points or atoms. These were taken to be fundamental, making Leibniz something of a panpsychist or an idealist. The existence of matter was taken to be derivative, a mere appearance of something ultimately mental or quasi-mental in nature. Like Spinoza, he was also a determinist who thought everything had to have a complete explanation, leaving no genuine room for objective randomness or chance. And he also agreed with Spinoza that there were innate ideas and knowledge which we possessed prior to any sensory experience of the world. Both thinkers went on to have a huge influence on other philosophers, as well as on many important scientists. (My Summary) This interview is from a 1978 BBC program. Subtitles/transcript is available.
Views: 67697 Philosophy Overdose
Jonathan Wolff gives a very brief introductory overview of John Rawls' A Theory of Justice, one of the most influential works in political philosophy of the 20th century. Rawls' argument takes the form of a thought experiment involving a hypothetical contract in which people are made ignorant about certain facts about themselves which could bias them in their own favor (e.g. their race, gender, class, age, talents, etc.). In this way, ignorance is used as a way to guarantee impartiality in deciding how societies should be set up. After all, one cannot rig things up to benefit oneself if one doesn't know what one's interests are and what one's position in society will be. Rawls argued that people behind this so-called "veil of ignorance" would agree to two principles of justice: the liberty principle and the difference principle. Jonathan Wolf explains these principles and the main arguments for and against them. (My Summary) This is from an episode of the podcast Philosophy Bites from a few years back: http://www.philosophybites.com For more on John Rawls, check out the following: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XwVqDBB9PwM&
Views: 57295 Philosophy Overdose
A brief discussion of the final proposition of the Tractatus, proposition 7: "Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent." This touches on the self-referential and paradoxical nature of the whole work and any project which tries to describe limits and the relation between language/thought and the world. This is from an episode of In Our Time on Wittgenstein with Ray Monk, Barry Smith, and Marie McGinn. For more, go to: www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qykl
Views: 7126 Philosophy Overdose
Gilles Deleuze, who died by his own hand in 1995, was one of the most influential and prolific French philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century. He wrote influentially not just on philosophy, but on literature, film, fine art and the environment as well. But his writing style - highly allusive, peppered with neologisms - is not easy-going. Robert Sinnerbrink tries to get to grips with this significant and important thinker with Alan Saunders in an episode of the Philosopher's Zone from a few years back. Podcast: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone
Views: 27633 Philosophy Overdose
Thomas Kuhn speaking about his famous book 'The Structure of Scientific Revolutions' in an excerpt from: "an intellectual autobiography in the form of an interview, conducted by Aristides Baltas, Kostas Gavroglu, and Vassiliki Kindi in Athens in the fall of 1995" (Kuhn, The Road since Structure, ed. James Conant and John Haugeland, University of Chicago, 2000).
Views: 9717 Philosophy Overdose
In the final talk of his series 'Minds, Brains and Science', John Searle examines the evidence for and against the existence of free will. Professor Searle attempts to explain why human beings stubbornly believe in their own freedom of action and debates the philosophy of free will. He concludes his Reith Lectures trying to characterize the relationship between the perceptions of self and the world around us. This talk was part of the Reith Lectures given by John Searle, American philosopher and Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. The rest of the talks from this series can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxBg93nx9e1HpQMN93Rm6TRR Transcript has been added.
Views: 24940 Philosophy Overdose
One important reason Marx thought the revolution was inevitable was that in a capitalist society the labor force was alienated. But what is alienation? Jonathan Wolff briefly explains what Marx meant by alienated labor, as well as Marx's controversial vision of what non-alienated labor might be like. This is from an episode of Philosophy Bites from a few years back: http://www.philosophybites.com/ You might also be interested in the following: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bDzjl-Ei4TE
Views: 15616 Philosophy Overdose
Chapter 4 of Friedrich Nietzsche's Twilight of the Idols. This is from LibriVox and read by D.E. Wittkower. Nietzsche on Nihilism and the Death of God: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0y5-hB0WYs Nietzsche on the Value of Truth: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWBIFavfCtM
Views: 3638 Philosophy Overdose
Beth Lord discusses Spinoza with Alan Saunders in an episode of the Philosopher's Zone from a few years back. Baruch Spinoza, one of the greatest philosophers of his day, was expelled from the Amsterdam synagogue in 1656 because of his unorthodox religious views. Ever since, he has been regarded as the great atheist of the Western tradition. Yet he mentions God very often throughout his writings. This is an episode of ABC National's The Philosopher's Zone from a few years back: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/philosopherszone/ Subtitles/transcript have been added.
Views: 28957 Philosophy Overdose
A good introduction to the philosophy of mathematics by Ray Monk. He considers the issue of the nature of mathematical truth--what mathematics is actually about--and discusses the views of Plato, Aristotle, Kant, Frege and Russell... What are numbers? Is mathematics something discovered, or is it something invented or constructed by us? From the time of Plato onward, people have regarded mathematical truths as an ideal. Unlike ordinary, empirical truths, mathematical truths seem to be necessary, eternal, universal, incorrigible, and absolutely certain. This talk considers some of the ways in which philosophers have tried to account for the special nature of mathematical truth. Ray Monk is a British philosopher well known for his writings on Wittgenstein, Bertrand Russell, and the physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer. This talk is part of the Philosophy Cafe series given at the University of Southampton. You might also be interested in the following: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vM3RO2KrWHo and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXD57a5BEO0
Views: 154433 Philosophy Overdose
Stephen Neale discusses Bertrand Russell's famous theory of descriptions and some of the philosophical issues surrounding it involving the nature of language and thought. The theory was first introduced in Russell's article "On Denoting" and made significant contributions to the philosophy of language, as well as logic, epistemology and ontology. Among other things, it made sense out of how we are able to speak and think about things which don't exist. The epistemology which motivated the theory was based on Russell's conception of sense data and his distinction between knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description. Russell's On Denoting: http://users.drew.edu/jlenz/br-on-denoting.html Knowledge by Acquaintance & Knowledge by Description: http://selfpace.uconn.edu/class/percep/RussellKnowAcquaint.pdf Part 2 can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pybaQlSsIX4 Credit goes to Simply Charly: https://www.simplycharly.com
Views: 28295 Philosophy Overdose
Could computers ever be built which could genuinely think and feel? John Searle thinks not. In this clip, he discusses his famous argument against the possibility of such of a view, that an appropriately programmed computer would not merely behave as if it had a mind, but would actually have a mind in the sense that it can literally be said to understand and have other cognitive states. The argument is an attack on behaviorism and functionalism, including computational theories of mind. Listen to the entire lecture: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkBq7QAGMAs&t Read more about the argument: http://www.iep.utm.edu/chineser/ https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/ Read Searle's original article: http://cogprints.org/7150/1/10.1.1.83.5248.pdf
Views: 4119 Philosophy Overdose
Nigel Warburton asks Slavoj Žižek about what he thinks philosophy is. I thought it was pretty good, so I decided to post the clip. It is from a few years ago, back in 2009 I believe. It is from Nigel Warburton's website virtualphilosopher.com More short philosophy clips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxCzrcYUBaK4cVBKRCIRxSoc
Views: 5136 Philosophy Overdose
Around the beginning of the last century, philosophy began to go down two separate paths, as thinkers from Continental Europe explored the legacy of figures including Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger, while those educated in the English-speaking world tended to look to more analytically-inclined philosophers like Bertrand Russell and Gottlob Frege. But the divide between these two schools of thought is not clear-cut, and many philosophers even question whether the term 'Continental' is accurate or useful. The Analytic school favours a logical, scientific approach, in contrast to the Continental emphasis on the importance of time and place. But what are the origins of this split and is it possible that contemporary philosophers can bridge the gap between the two? Melvyn Bragg discusses this with guests in this episode of In Our Time. The guests include Stephen Mulhall, Professor of Philosophy at New College, University of Oxford, Beatrice Han-Pile, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Essex, and Hans Johann-Glock, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Zurich. This is an episode of BBC's In Our Time: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qykl
Views: 53420 Philosophy Overdose
Peter Singer discusses the thought of Hegel and Marx with Bryan Magee in this 1987 television series. Hegel was an important and influential 19th century German philosopher, best known for his Hegelian dialectic, absolute idealism, and historicism, among various other things. The Hegelian dialectic is the process in which everything changes, based on the triad: thesis-antithesis-synthesis. Hegel's idealism rejected the Kantian notion of the thing-in-itself and instead embraced a monistic vision of the world in which everything forms an organic, interconnected, rational whole. Nothing is true or real except the whole. Not only a thinker of totality, Hegel was a historicist thinker who rejected the notion that ideas are static and fixed (e.g. the concepts of human nature and morality). Things can only be understood by understanding their historical context, which, for Hegel, is a process which changes, and which has an underlying meaning or significance. Like Hegel, Marx also was an influential German thinker. As a young or left Hegelian, he adopted much of Hegel's system, but substituted a kind of materialism for Hegel's idealism. This meant that rather than ideas underlying everything and driving historical change, it was the material and economic conditions which determine ideas, culture, and historical change. (My Summary) Transcript/Subtitles were added.
Views: 23552 Philosophy Overdose
In this short BBC episode of In Our Time, Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Dutch Jewish Philosopher Baruch Spinoza. For the radical thinkers of the Enlightenment, he was the first man to have lived and died as a true atheist. For others, including Samuel Taylor Coleridge, he provides perhaps the most profound conception of God to be found in Western philosophy. He was bold enough to defy the thinking of his time, yet too modest to accept the fame of public office and he died, along with Socrates and Seneca, one of the three great deaths in philosophy. Baruch Spinoza can claim influence on both the Enlightenment thinkers of the 18th century and great minds of the 19th, notably Hegel, and his ideas were so radical that they could only be fully published after his death. But what were the ideas that caused such controversy in Spinoza’s lifetime, how did they influence the generations after, and can Spinoza really be seen as the first philosopher of the rational Enlightenment? With Jonathan Rée, historian and philosopher and Visiting Professor at Roehampton University; Sarah Hutton, Professor of English at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth; John Cottingham, Professor of Philosophy at the University of Reading. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b0079ps2 "God or Nature"
Views: 33126 Philosophy Overdose
This is an introduction to the life, work, and legacy of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. There is little doubt that he was a towering figure of the twentieth century; on his return to Cambridge in 1929 Maynard Keynes wrote, “Well, God has arrived. I met him on the 5:15 train”. Wittgenstein is credited with being the greatest philosopher of the modern age, a thinker who left not one but two philosophies for his successors to argue over: The early Wittgenstein said, “the limits of my language mean the limits of my world”; the later Wittgenstein replied, “If God looked into our minds he would not have been able to see there whom we were speaking of”. Language was at the heart of both. Wittgenstein stated that his purpose was to finally free humanity from the pointless and neurotic philosophical questing that plagues us all. As he put it, “To show the fly the way out of the fly bottle”. He was something of a philosopher's philosopher. But how did he think language could solve all the problems of philosophy? How have his ideas influenced contemporary culture? And could his thought ever achieve the release for us that he hoped it would? Melvyn Bragg discusses Wittgenstein and these questions with Ray Monk (Professor of Philosophy at the University of Southampton), Barry Smith (Lecturer in Philosophy at Birkbeck, University of London), and Marie McGinn (Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of York). More Wittgenstein: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QIK3E9U4Xec http://www.iep.utm.edu/wittgens/ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/wittgenstein/ This is a BBC Radio 4 program called "In Our Time". http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4
Views: 126769 Philosophy Overdose
John Searle introduces David Hume's skeptical views on causation and induction. As an empiricist, Hume thought that all our knowledge is based on experience, the data from the senses. But experience only reveals THAT something is the case, not that it MUST be. We only perceive sequences of events, not any underlying necessary connection between events. Likewise, observation does not reveal what holds everywhere at all times. In order to make such a move, one must assume the uniformity of nature (i.e. the future will resemble the past, the unobserved will resemble the observed, that similar causes have similar effects, etc.). But what reason is there to believe such an assumption? Is there any evidence for it? Hume argued there is not. Any argument will be circular because it will presuppose the very thing at issue that needs to be demonstrated (i.e. that the future will resemble the past). As such, not only does induction fall short of certainty, but it is without any rational basis at all. This is from a course Searle gave at Berkeley a few years back. You can find more Searle here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lf_4t0_HUx8& For a more in-depth discussion of Hume and the nature of causation, check out the following: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxC4gD_Jys3bsfprad70EGZu
Views: 8546 Philosophy Overdose
In 1900, in Paris, the International Congress of Mathematicians gathered in a mood of hope and fear. The edifice of maths was grand and ornate but its foundations had been shaken. They were deemed to be inconsistent and possibly paradoxical. At the conference, a young man called David Hilbert set out a plan to rebuild the foundations of maths – to make them consistent, all encompassing and without any hint of a paradox. Hilbert was one of the greatest mathematicians that ever lived, but his plan failed spectacularly because of Kurt Gödel. Gödel proved that there were some problems in maths that were impossible to solve, that the bright clear plain of mathematics was in fact a labyrinth filled with potential paradox. In doing so, Gödel changed the way we understand what mathematics is, and the implications of his work in physics and philosophy take us to the very edge of what we can know. Melvyn Bragg discusses Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems with Marcus du Sautoy, Professor of Mathematics at Wadham College, University of Oxford; John Barrow, Professor of Mathematical Sciences at the University of Cambridge and Gresham Professor of Geometry and Philip Welch, Professor of Mathematical Logic at the University of Bristol. This is from a BBC program called In Our Time. For more information, go to http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qykl.
Views: 62816 Philosophy Overdose
A discussion with Helen Beebee on David Hume and his skepticism regarding causation and inductive reasoning. David Hume was a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century. He was an empiricist who believed that all ideas and knowledge must ultimately be based on sensory experience. This led him to conclude, not only that ideas about God and ultimate reality are without any rational ground, but so too even for ideas of the self, substance, and causality (hence, his bundle theory and the problem of induction). Hume saw human nature as a manifestation of the natural world, rather than something above and beyond it. He also gave a skeptical account of religion, which caused many to suspect him of atheism. His works, beginning in 1740 with "A Treatise of Human Nature", have influenced thinkers from Adam Smith and Immanuel Kant, to Charles Darwin and Einstein, and today is regarded as one of the most important philosophers ever to write in English. For more on David Hume, check out: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLBHxLhKiPKxBuGhbDKwahBLVhiUVTf9Ts This is from an ABC Radio National program called The Philosopher's Zone.
Views: 29880 Philosophy Overdose
A clip of Robert Brandom discussing Hegel and the so-called modal "oomph" of experience. One of the biggest difficulties for empiricism has always been necessity. After all, the senses only reveal THAT something is the case, not that it MUST be the case.
Views: 2688 Philosophy Overdose
Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss phenomenology, a style of philosophy developed by the German thinker Edmund Husserl in the first decades of the 20th century. Husserl's initial insights underwent a radical transformation in the work of his student Martin Heidegger, and played a key role in the development of French philosophy at the hands of writers like Emmanuel Levinas, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Phenomenology has been a remarkably adaptable approach to philosophy. It has given its proponents a platform to expose and critique the basic assumptions of past philosophy, and to talk about everything from the foundations of geometry to the difference between fear and anxiety. It has also been instrumental in getting philosophy out of the seminar room and making it relevant to the lives people actually lead. The guests include Simon Glendinning, Professor of European Philosophy in the European Institute at the London School of Economics, Joanna Hodge, Professor of Philosophy at Manchester Metropolitan University, and Stephen Mulhall, Professor of Philosophy and Tutor at New College at the University of Oxford. This is from a BBC episode of In Our Time. I don't own it. For more information, go to http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qykl
Views: 33115 Philosophy Overdose